The missing prisoners represented more than half the overcrowded prison’s population of 8,000. More than 80 people were killed during the escape, 20 vehicles were burned and a prison office was set ablaze, according to the African Association for the Defense of Human Rights.
The prison’s inhabitants include opposition leaders, war criminals convicted by the International Criminal Court and soldiers convicted of assassinating the president’s father and predecessor, Laurent Kabila. It was unclear whether any of them were among the escapees.
Ne Muanda Nsemi, the leader of Bundu Dia Kongo, which aims to restore the ancient Kingdom of Kongo around the source of Congo River, fled in the mayhem with the help of his supporters.
Mr. Nsemi, who calls himself a prophet and wears canary yellow robes and red bandannas, had been imprisoned since March, when he was arrested after clashes between his supporters and the police.
The prison break was regarded as another symptom of the worsening political instability and dysfunction surrounding Mr. Kabila, who has been dealing with uprisings across the vast country since he refused to step down as required by the constitution’s term limits last December.
Alexis Thambwe Mwamba, the justice minister, played down the number of escapees, saying there had only been 50. But rights groups and other witnesses insisted the true figure was many multiples of that.
Early Wednesday morning, Mr. Nsemi’s followers killed security guards at the main entrance of Makala prison, according to a senior prison official who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he was not allowed to talk to the news media. They proceeded to the block where Mr. Nsemi was held and freed him.
“Other inmates took advantage of this situation and broke down the doors of their cells and fled,” the…